When an engine immobilizer fails, it exhibits the same symptoms as several misfires, which may be rather frustrating.
In a nutshell, your vehicle will not start, but there is a remote possibility that it could turn over. There is a possibility that you will also see issues with connected systems, such as the central locking or the alarm.
What Exactly Is An Engine Immobilizer?
An anti-theft system is referred to as an engine immobilizer. Every single contemporary automobile is outfitted with at least one of these safety features.
Technically, an immobilizer system consists of the following
- The Ignition key (transmitter).
- The receiver.
- The decoder.
- The transponder key ECU.
- The starting, fuel injection, and ignition systems.
- The systems responsible for starting, fuel injection, and igniting.
Car thieves would have a lot simpler time taking vehicles off the road if they weren’t equipped with immobilizers.
You know how in all those catastrophe movies and TV shows, they show someone jumping into an old car, tearing the steering column trim off, and then hotwiring the car, right? It is undeniably cool to look at, but in actuality, anyone who tries this in the outside world is almost always considered a criminal.
To the typical person’s knowledge, hotwiring a contemporary vehicle is physically impossible. [Citation needed] And all of this is possible because of the engine immobilizer.
How Does a Car Engine Immobilizer Work?
Your vehicle is rendered inoperable, or “immobilized,” by an engine immobilizer. That comes as no surprise, does it?
In a nutshell, it prevents the engine from starting and running once it has been started.
An immobilizer for a vehicle might be compared to a doorman or a security guard. It is responsible for keeping an eye out for a signal that indicates a buddy is on their way, and it will only open the door for a visitor if the signal is present on them.
In actuality, it is looking for a key fob transponder to be present. When you enter your vehicle using a key that has been programmed, the signals exchanged between the key and the immobilizer are synchronized. After that, the starter is given the signal to start the engine.
It might be challenging to articulate exactly how engine immobilizers perform their functions. Any manufacturer (as well as every aftermarket parts designer) will approach the design of their component in their own unique way.
When you put everything into perspective like way, it all makes perfect sense. The fact that criminals are unsure of how immobilizers operate or where the wires are connected is the sole reason for their effectiveness.
However, in a nutshell, the following is how current engine immobilizers function:
- The key has a transmitter built into it.
- When it is successfully connected to the vehicle, the ECU will transmit a lengthy numerical code to the key fob.
- The number is then sent back to the automobile after the key performs certain mathematical operations on it. The ECU has worked concurrently on the same amounts throughout this process.
- The findings obtained from the key are compared to the car’s own data.
- If all of the codes are the same, the immobilizer will enable electricity to flow to the systems responsible for starting and driving the vehicle.
Challenge-Response is the name given to this category of system.
Older immobilizers functioned differently. For instance, some of them contained a transponder in the key that was of the “pill” kind, and it was activated by a coil that was wrapped around the ignition switch.
Older versions may just disable the fuel injection and ignition systems, which may still enable the engine to be turned over but will prevent it from starting.
Signs and symptoms of a malfunctioning ignition immobilizer
The Engine Won’t Crank This Time
The majority of contemporary immobilizers accomplish their function by obstructing the engine’s ability to turn over. In addition to this, they stop the fuel from entering the combustion chamber and stop the spark plug from lighting it on fire.
When you turn the key, you will most likely not hear anything at all as a consequence of this.
In the event that you need to start your engine immediately, you may do it by using the magnetic connection that exists between the key and the vehicle. A VHF signal is what establishes the connection between the fob and the ECU (315 MHz in the US).
Problems with the Central Locking System
There is a possibility of the immobilizer being connected to the central locking system, however this is not usually the case.
The decoder receives the code that was generated by the key when it is transmitted from the transmitter to the receiver. These are all components of the system that immobilizes vehicles.
Even while the central locking system and the fuel and ignition systems aren’t directly connected to one another, they do have a relationship with some components of the immobilizer.
It’s possible that an issue might cause the central locking system to stop operating or act strangely.
The key fob to your automobile may conceal a manual entry option for your vehicle. The alarm is about to go off. In order to disable it, you will need to use the magnetic connection that your key provides.
Key Instrument Warning Light
If your instrument cluster displays a key symbol, it indicates that your vehicle is unable to recognize the signal transmitted by the key.
The problem is almost often associated with the transmitter of the key. Nevertheless, it might be dependent on the receiver of the ECU.
If one of these things happen, it indicates that the immobilizer does not recognize the key.
In the most up-to-date automobiles shown on the display, you could even notice the words “Key Not Detected.”
Is It Your Car’s Battery, Immobilizer, Or Key That’s Giving You Trouble?
Technically speaking, the immobilizer is the part of the automobile that prevents the engine from starting when the key is not present.
When you discover a possible problem with the immobilizer, how do you determine the underlying cause? What if it were something as simple as the battery or the key? Several ideas are presented here.
Before you begin, it is important to be aware that the key is the source of the majority of “immobilizer” difficulties. Changing the batteries in your key will, in almost all circumstances, cure all of your problems.
But that’s not the case everytime.
Changing Your Key Battery
The key fob is equipped with a transmitter that communicates with the receiver in the automobile. Battery power is required in order for this message to be sent.
Every few years, you will need to replace the button-style batteries that are included within your key. They are no different than any other cells in that they will ultimately lose their charge and become inoperable.
Changing the battery will allow you to rule out the possibility that the issue is with your key. You’ll notice that the price for these is merely a few dollars. It’s possible that an employee of the hardware or locksmith company can even set it up for you.
Come back to the car and give the central locking system another shot. Is it any easier to use?
Place yourself in the driver’s seat and attempt to start the vehicle.
Immobilizer Problem ? Cause your Battery Car
If you have determined that the key is not the source of the issue, the next item to look into is the battery in the vehicle.
The starting motor is the primary appliance that is powered by the battery. However, it is also accountable for the operation of a number of other components even when the engine is turned off. These components include, among others, the receiver, the alarm system, and the central locking mechanism.
In the event that the battery is totally depleted, the receiver will be absolutely powerless. Even if your key sends the right code, the electronic control unit in your vehicle will not recognize it.
Turning on the headlights is a good way to check the status of your battery. Proceed to the front of the vehicle and check to verify if the lights are functioning properly. Any one of these symptoms would point to a battery that has been discharged to a very low level.
In an ideal scenario, you should invest in a multimeter or a battery tester. They will provide you with a more accurate overall picture of the state it is in.
Get a new battery if you think you need one. The whole cost, including installation, should be close to one hundred dollars.
Don’t overlook the importance of determining the source of the drain on your battery in the first place! It may be something as easy as forgetting to turn off the radio. On the other hand, it’s possible that you have a deeper ECU problem or a parasitic drain.
What To Do If Your Vehicle’s Immobilizer Is Broken (Including Cost)
As was said, prior to doing any extensive diagnostic work on the electrical system:
Replace the battery in your key.
Perform a test on your vehicle’s battery and, if necessary, replace it.
To rule out the possibility of a misfire, you should have a professional take a look at the vehicle (see the list below). You might also have your vehicle towed to the nearest repair shop.
They may determine that the immobilizer device itself is the primary source of the problem. At this point, they will remove the module from the vehicle, replace it with a new one, and then program the new module so that it is compatible with the ECU. Reprogramming will also be required for the key.
You should budget anywhere from $300 to $600 for this, including labor costs.
Keep in mind that your symptoms might also be an indication of any of the following other problems:
- Failing fuel pump
- Bad injectors
- Clogged fuel line
- Old spark plugs
- Faulty MAF, MAP, or other engine sensors
- Other problems with the ECU, such as damage to it.
- Bad EGR valve
- Low battery power
- faulty ignition coil pack and other like issues
It is time to take your vehicle to the automotive electrician when they are unable to get it to start.